deca durabolin side effects

Deca durabolin side effectsl – semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotic is a prodrug tsefditorena (third generation cephalosporin). The mechanism of action of the drug associated with the inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis because of its affinity to penicillin binding proteins.
Mechanisms of resistance
Tsefditoren as a third-generation cephalosporin is common mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics of this group. Resistance of gram-positive bacteria may be associated with changes in protein penicillinStreptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans, or appearance of an additional protein penicillin of Staphylococcus spp. Tsefditoren most resistant to the most common chromosomal and plasmid beta-lactamase negative bacteria. However, as other cephalosporins, tsefditoren beta-lactamases hydrolyze wide range mediated by plasmids. Moreover, the cause can be output resistance chromosomal beta-lactamase mutant strains of Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganellaspp. and Serratia spp.

tsefditorena mechanism of action similar to other cephalosporin antibiotics and the mechanism of action differs from other groups of antibiotics. In general, cross-resistance between tsefditorenom and other antibiotics were observed groups. However, in rare cases, some mechanisms of action (for example, associated with inner impermeable membrane with the presence or removal of the mechanism of active antibiotic from the cells) can be similar for all groups of antibiotics. This causes a certain level of resistance to all antibiotics.

The minimum inhibitory concentration deca durabolin side effects
recommended MIC values for tsefditorena allowing classify microorganisms with high, intermediate sensitive and resistant: sensitive – ≤ 0.5 mg / ml, with intermediate sensitivity -> 0.5 mcg / mL and <2 mg / ml resistant – ≥ 2 mcg / mL.

The table below provides information on the spectrum sensitivity of the majority of micro-organisms for approved indications for use.

The prevalence of acquired resistance may vary depending on the geographic area, as well as in otdelnk pathogens. For this reason, it is desirable to obtain information about the sensitivity of microorganisms in a certain region, especially in the treatment of severe infections. In cases where the resistance of pathogens in doubt, you can seek help from a specialist, who will assess the advisability of appointing tsefditorena in a specific clinical case.

after oral tsefditorena pivoxil it is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and hydrolyzed by the action of esterases to tsefditorena. Ingestion of 200 mg after meals accompanied reach maximum concentration (Cmax), equal to 2.6 g / mL, about 2.5 hours, while receiving 400 mg results using the same time to achieve a Cmax equal to 4.1 ug / ml. Absolute biodostushyust tsefditorena after deca durabolin side effects oral administration compared to intravenous administration is about 15-20%.

The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract absorption tsefditorena pivoxil speeds, resulting in increased performance Cmax and area under the curve “concentration – time» by 50% and 70% compared with the values of fasting respectively.

Plasma protein binding and distribution
Binding tsefditorena to plasma proteins is 88%.
After repeated and a single dose of the drug pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ; This shows a lack of accumulation.
The volume of distribution at steady tsefditorena concentration conditions are not significantly different from this figure, calculated after a single administration; it is essentially independent of the dose and always remains within 40-65 liters.
After single administration of 400 mg of the drug penetration into the mucosa and bronchial secretion was 60% and 20% of the plasma concentration, respectively. Results deca durabolin side effects similar dose administration to healthy volunteers and subsequent evaluation of penetration of antibiotic into the interstitial fluid showed that after 8 and 12 hours tsefditorena concentration in interstitial fluid reaches 40% and 56% of the area under the plasma concentration-index curve, respectively.